Singapore is attempting to go greener

Climate change is unavoidable and future generations will have to deal with our sins. It happened because we ignore the perils of continued deforestation and putting out so much greenhouse gases in the name of economic growth and so called “human development”.

For Singapore, climate change will have a big impact because we are such a small island with heavy urbanisation. The average sea level around Singapore stands at 14 cm above the pre-1970s level and further rises will put us at further risk of extreme flooding. The island afterall has 30% of its land less than 5 metres above the mean sea level. The island is also very humid and hot. On average, Singapore’s annual temperature has risen 0.25 degree Celsius over the past decade and it is going to get hotter. Further increase in temperature is going to cause the population to suffer from serious heat stress.

With that in mind, Singapore government announced the Singapore Green Plan 2030 in an attempt to mitigate the impact of climate change.

One aspect of the plan was to create a City in Nature. To achieve that, the National Parks Board (NParks) is launching a movement to plant a million trees across Singapore in the next 10 years.

As part of that movement, some 170,000 trees will be planted within industrial estates around the country with the help of the community. Tree planting will be done using tiered planting system to mimic the structure of plants in a forest. You can imagine it as a mix of trees, shrubs and other type of plants. These are also known as Nature Ways and will serve to connect the different green spaces. Modelling studies done by NParks showed that this multi-tiered planting structure could reduce surface temperature by up to 6 degree Celsius along our roads and state lands compared to planting trees in rows. This is especially useful in industrial areas as they are amongst the hottest regions in Singapore. It would make industrial areas more attractive and conducive to work in.

34,000 trees will also be planted on Jurong Island by 2022. Since 2019, nearly 13,000 trees have been planted on the island. The goal was to make the island more attractive to work in and reduce the overall temperature.

Other than tree planting, green energy is another part of the plan. Singapore will quadruple solar energy deployment by 2025. To achieve that, there will be multiple approaches which include having rooftops of HDB blocks covered by solar panels, deployment of a large scale floating solar panel systems at Tengeh Reservoir and a sea-based offshore floating solar test-bed north of Woodlands Waterfront Park. Furthermore, the country will attempt to tap on green energy sources from ASEAN region while also increasing the efficiency of each new generation of gas-fired power plants to reduce emissions.

HDB towns will also use 15% less energy through the deployment of smart LED lights. Beyond that, 80% of all buildings in Singapore will also be green over the next ten years.

Ministry of Education will also work to strengthen the curriculum and school programmes on sustainability. In addition, they will work to achieve a two-third reduction in net carbon emissions from MOE schools by 2030 and aim for 20% of schools to be carbon neutral by 2030.

To reduce the country’s reliance on cars to get around, 8 in 10 households will be within a 10-minute walk of a train station by 2030. The rail network will grow from around 230 km to 360 km by early 2030s. However, one does wonder what is the environmental cost of expanding the rail network as trees will be felled and land cleared. Even when the trees are replanted back, they will take a while to mature and sequestrate carbon from the envrionment.

For slightly longer trips but those that do not warrant taking the rail, citizens are encouraged to cycle. To encourage that, the cycling network will also be expanded to 1,320 km by 2030 while roads will be repurpose and implement pedestrianisation where possible.

Furthermore, vehicles that run on internal combustion engine will be phased out by 2040. Cars to be registered from 2030 will have to be cleaner-energy model. To support this shift, EV charging points will be increased to 60,000 by 2030 from the current 28,000. Petrol duty rates are also increased with immediate effect in 2021 as part of the goal to shift the society direction towards car-lite behaviour.

Singapore aims to demonstrate that going green is not at the expense of the economy. A key target from the Singapore Green Plan 2030 is to help enterprises embrace sustainability and develop capabilities in this area.

Another target is to create business and job opportunities in sectors such as green finance, sustainability consultancy, verification, credits trading and risk management. Part of that target include building up the financial sector’s resilience to environmental risks. This will support the country’s third target to be a leading centre for Green Finance in Asia and globally. The last target is to promote homegrown innovation under the Research, Innovation and Enterprise Plan 2025, and attract companies to anchor their sustainability R&D activities in Singapore.

Given all the above, it is my opinion that it is in Singapore’s best interest to achieve all the goals and targets earlier than 2030. The COVID-19 pandemic is the best time for us to pivot ourselves towards new growth areas and reshape ourselves to be the model for others to follow.

Construction begins for Singapore first large-scale floating solar panel system at Tengeh Reservoir

Despite its small size, Singapore does not shrink from its environmental and climate responsibility. It is taking steps to reduce its overall carbon footprint.

In a press release published on August 18, the Singapore national water agency, PUB, and Sembcorp Floating Solar Singapore announced that the construction of a 60 megawatt-peak (MWp) floating solar photovoltaic (PV) system on Tengeh Reservoir has begun.

This system enables Singapore to be one of the few countries in the world to integrate green technology with water treatment. Clean energy generated will be used to power PUB’s local water treatment plants when the system begins full commercial operations in 2021, offsetting PUB’s annual energy need by 7 percent.

The stage was initially set in 2016 when PUB and the Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB) launched a 1MWp floating solar PV testbed at Tengeh Reservoir to study the feasibility of deploying floating solar PV systems on Singapore reservoirs.

At the end of the trial, this 1MWp system was found to perform five to fifteen percent better than conventional solar PV rooftop system due to the cooler reservoir environment. There were also no observable change in the reservoir’s water quality and no significant impact on the surrounding wildlife based on studies conducted.

PUB conducted further engineering and environmental studies in 2017 to assess feasibility of large-scale deployment. Findings from the studies showed minimal impact on the environment and water quality. PUB also engaged Environmental nature groups throughout the study to ensure minimal disruption to the ecology and biodiversity at Tengeh Reservoir.

Favourable results from the studies was what enable PUB to decide to scale up the testbed and deploy a 50MWp floating PV system.

Green and safe for the environment

It would be ironic if the system itself leaves behind a large carbon footprint or damages the environment during operation.

That is why every component of the system was carefully designed and selected based on Singapore’s climate, which is hot and humid. This is to maximise energy generation, minimise environmental and water quality impact, and the system be durable enough to last 25 years. For example, the PV modules are doubled-glassed instead of single-glassed, allowing them to last longer in a wet and humid environment typical of reservoirs.

Furthermore, the PV modules are supported by certified food-grade quality high density polyethylene (HDPE) floats which are UV-resistant, thus allowing them to survive the intense sunlight exposure.

Comes with smart technologies to enhance operations

The system is not just green but smart too.

It is backed by a digital monitoring platform which features safety cameras, ‘live’ video monitoring, dashboards and alerts that will help track environmental factors such as wind speed, solar irradiation and ambient temperature. This will help PUB to optimise the performance and reliability of operations.

Furthermore, the monitoring platform also detects abnormalities that may indicate potential overheating or fire hazard. This allows for preemptive troubleshooting. Through the use of a mobile application, staff will be able to monitor the system remotely and enable maintenance teams to be deployed swiftly when required.

What’s next?

EDB launched a two-stage Request For Information (RFI) for the possibility of a 100MWp floating solar PV system to be deployed at Kranji Reservoir for private sector consumption in 2018.

At the first stage, the RFI will invite potential renewable energy user from the private sector to submit proposals on how they can harness solar energy. The EDB hopes to determine the private sector’s demand for renewable energy during this stage and identify an end-user who will partner with relevant government agencies to evaluate the feasibility of this large-scale floating solar PV system.

The second stage will require the selected end-user to perform comprehensive studies to assess the potential environmental impact of the system. After which, a decision will be made to deploy the solar PV system.

The Singapore government also increased its target for solar energy in October 2019, aiming to harness enough power from the sun equivalent to about 4 percent of the country’s total electricity demand or about 2GWp. This target is build on the previous target of generating 350MWp of power from the sun by 2020, which the country met in April 2020.

To meet this target, the government will take the lead to maximise deployment of solar PV panels on rooftops of private industrial buildings and commercial buildings. Furthermore, solar panels will also be deployed on the rooftops of public sector buildings.

At the same time, the Energy Market Authority (EMA) is aiming to deploy 200 megawatts of energy storage system (ESS) beyond 2025. They are partnering with Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) to develop a new hybrid ESS that combines lithium iron phosphate and lithium iron manganese phosphate batteries with capacitors. If the latter is successful, the hybrid ESS will be safer and more suitable for the country’s hot and humid conditions.

With the ESS, Singapore can shave off the difference between peak demands within the daily cycle, thereby reducing our dependence on fossil fuel to generate additional power.

Singapore, the Garden City, has a dirty secret! It has a plastic problem!

Singapore is a tiny island nation in Southeast Asia boosting a population of 5.6 million. On 11 May 1967, Lee Kuan Yew, then Prime Minister of Singapore, introduced the “Garden City” vision to transform the nation into a city that has abundant lush greenery and clean environment. It was to make life more pleasant for the people and the place a good destination for tourists and foreign investments.

When compared to other cities, Singapore indeed has a lot of trees and plants. Greenery minimises the “harshness” of a concrete jungle, reduces pollution and give us some sort of psychological well-being.

However, as the city develops, so does its impact on the environment. One of its biggest environmental crime was the excessive use of plastic products.

In a study commissioned by the Singapore Environment Council, shoppers in Singapore take 820 million plastic bags from supermarkets each year. That translates to an average of 146 plastic bags for each person. For comparison, the amount of petroleum used to produce these 820 million bags can power 1.9 million car rides across the length of island and back.

For context, each person in England used 133 plastic bags in 2013. That was before the law in the UK required large retailers to charge for plastic bags. The levy on plastic bag introduced in 2015 in the UK caused a decline in the use of single-use plastic bags, with 2.1 billion bags sold between April 2016 and April 2017. Now in 2019, each shopper in the UK uses just 10 bags a year.

And that is not all the study revealed.

Singaporeans also used 467 million polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles a year and 473 million plastic disposable items such as takeaway containers1.

It is also important to keep in mind that that this study did not include the use of plastic bags from other sources such as small mom-and-pop shops, bakeries and bubble tea shops.

In a separate report, it is found that retailers in Singapore are set up to feed into the country’s obsession with convenience. For example, the bakery chain, BreadTalk, was found to bag each bun or bread into their respective plastic bag, and then use a larger bag to carry all the bagged buns 2.

Compounding on the problem of excessive plastic products use in Singapore is the massive plastic bag wastage.

There are about 420 tonnes of plastic bags being disposed of every day in 2017 alone. And that constitutes about one-fifth of the 94 percent of plastic waste that was not recycled but incinerated.

Union Packaging Industries, which supplies 30 tonnes of plastic bags monthly to retailers in Singapore, sees about 20 percent of the plastic resins wasted because of the adjustment needed throughout the manufacturing process3.

At the rate that Singapore is consuming and wasting plastic products, the nation will soon run out of space to store all that waste. In 2035, it is projected that the country’s sole landfill site, Semakau Island, will be completely full. When that time comes, one starts to wonder where would the country stores its waste.

Singapore is not as green as you think

Singapore is an island city state located at the tip of the Peninsular Malaysia with a population of at least 5.6 million. Ever since gaining its true independence from Malaysia in 1965, the nation has grown rapidly in the early 1970s and 1980s, becoming one of the Asian Tigers in the process. It did so within a single generation under the leadership of the founding prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew.

But all that development is not without cost to the environment.

Since its founding by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819, the island has lost 95% of its natural forest. Although the government saw the dangers of being highly urbanised back in 1967 and implemented plans to make the country a garden city, it didn’t stop the island from losing over twenty species of freshwater fishes, 100 species of birds. A number of mammals have also gone extinct locally. And that was based on the journal, The Ecological Transformation of Singapore, 1819-1990, published in 1992 by Wiley. There are also 1358 species of native vascular plants but 759 of those are critically endangered based on a report1 published in the Singapore Red Book Data, page 2.

A 2003 analysis, reported by John Pickrell for National Geographic News in an article titled “Singapore Extinctions Spell Doom For Asia?” 2, put our wildlife losses as follow: 4,866 plants, 627 butterflies, 234 fish, 111 reptiles, and 91 mammals. Since 1923, 61 of the 91 known forest species of birds have died out. And that meant that as much as 73 percent of the island’s original biota has been eradicated.

Whatever that is left of island native wildlife, half of those can only be found in the various nature reserves located around the island that take up less than 0.25% of the land area.

It’s not to say the government didn’t do anything. To combat further flora and fauna losses, the government announced the Singapore Green Plan 1992 and Singapore Green Plan 2012. The plans promoted the conservation of the nation’s natural resources, the use of green technology to conserve the environment, both local and globally, and to raise awareness and instill a sense of personal duty among the locals to protect the environment.

Through these plans, Sungei Buloh Nature Park and Labrador Nature Park were promoted and gazetted to be nature reserve in 2001. NParks, the government organisation responsible for Singapore parks and nature reserve, also began reforestation of the Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve. By 2006, 71.6 hectares of land have been reforested.

Even then, environment destruction continues for the sake of development.

To increase the amount of space available for development, Singapore has been reclaiming land since its founding and has added 141 square kilometre of land thus far. Through this, the nation is able to reduce the pressure of having small amount of space to work with, thus allowing it to preserve historical and culturally significant buildings as it further urbanised and fuel its economical growth.

However, these land reclamation works, which have increased in intensity since independence in 1965, have caused the destruction of over 60 percent of our coral reefs and the loss of 95% of its native mangroves.

For past reclamation work, Singapore drew from its own hill but that source ran out decades ago. And land reclamation can’t use desert sand since they are of smaller grains and have smooth surfaces as a result of weathering that made them infeasible for construction use. As a result, the country has to import large quantity of beach and river sand from neighbouring countries. In 2010 alone, the country imported 14.6 million tons of sand3. In 2016, the country imported 38.6 million tons of sand with half of it supplied by Malaysia4.

Although the government did its best to get sands through contractors who must adhere to the legal requirements in which they operate, it didn’t stop the destruction of the source environment since sand are either mined or through dredging the beaches or river. The flora and fauna losses as a result of those activities is not yet quantifiable but it definitely leave marks that raise concerns in various local communities.

As a result, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia and Vietnam halted export of sand to Singapore if not outright banning it.

But it didn’t stop black market sand mining activities. With Singapore buying huge amount of it, it has become a lucrative resource. Blackmarket miners and smugglers targeted many of the islands around Singapore that has only a few or zero inhabitants as well as off limits areas such as nature reserves within countries like Malaysia, Cambodia and Indonesia to mine sand.

One such illegal source for sand came from Nipah Island. It’s an island situated on the borders of Singapore and Indonesia. In 2003, the island disappeared under the sea wave based on a report by the local NGO Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 5.

Another questionable source was from the Tatai River in Cambodia. Sand mining from that river have caused veritable traffic jam on the water. Not only that, 270 families who lived along the river reported an estimated 85 percent drop in catch of fish, crab and lobsters and were being forced to eke out a living from small garden plots 6.

Even then, it didn’t stop Singapore from attempting to import sand from other countries outside of Southeast Asia. At the same time, the nation will begin to use new methods of land reclamation. One such method is to recycle excavated material from construction to use in some projects. Another was to pilot a new method that will use less sand in late 2016 78.

It’s a step in the right direction but doesn’t change the fact the damage was already done.

Furthermore, shoppers in Singapore are contributing to making the country less green by their heavy use of plastic-based products.

In a study conducted by the Singapore Environment Council, shoppers take 820 million plastic bags from supermarket each year. That’s an average of 146 plastic bag per person. The petroleum used in their production could have easily powered 1.9 million car rides across the length of the island and back 9.

In comparison, Australia uses 0.53 plastic bag per person while Malaysia uses 0.8 plastic bag 10.

A big part of the problem stems from the people who see using plastic bags as a right instead of privilege. Therefore, they will ask for more plastic bag than they need when they shop.

Not only plastic bags are heavily used in Singapore. Considering that there’s access to clean water in the country, locals continued to buy bottled water instead of bringing their own water drawn from the taps 11 and contribute to the 467 million polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles used per year. In addition, 473 million polypropylene plastic disposables are used each year 12. The cheapness and convenience of these disposables is undeniable. Food establishments in Singapore buy them in bulk and doesn’t recycle them. Used plastic plates, fork, spoon and cup are thrown into the bin.

So, it’s not surprising that 94% of these plastic wastes are not recycled 13 and most of them just end up in the incinerators and landfills.

Lastly, there’s the electricity production to consider. Right now, the nation generates 95% of its electricity using natural gas. In 2001, electricity production rely heavily on oil. So it’s definitely a step in the right direction but natural gas is still a non-renewable resource, and when burned, generates carbon dioxide that are released into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming.