Singapore is attempting to go greener

Climate change is unavoidable and future generations will have to deal with our sins. It happened because we ignore the perils of continued deforestation and putting out so much greenhouse gases in the name of economic growth and so called “human development”.

For Singapore, climate change will have a big impact because we are such a small island with heavy urbanisation. The average sea level around Singapore stands at 14 cm above the pre-1970s level and further rises will put us at further risk of extreme flooding. The island afterall has 30% of its land less than 5 metres above the mean sea level. The island is also very humid and hot. On average, Singapore’s annual temperature has risen 0.25 degree Celsius over the past decade and it is going to get hotter. Further increase in temperature is going to cause the population to suffer from serious heat stress.

With that in mind, Singapore government announced the Singapore Green Plan 2030 in an attempt to mitigate the impact of climate change.

One aspect of the plan was to create a City in Nature. To achieve that, the National Parks Board (NParks) is launching a movement to plant a million trees across Singapore in the next 10 years.

As part of that movement, some 170,000 trees will be planted within industrial estates around the country with the help of the community. Tree planting will be done using tiered planting system to mimic the structure of plants in a forest. You can imagine it as a mix of trees, shrubs and other type of plants. These are also known as Nature Ways and will serve to connect the different green spaces. Modelling studies done by NParks showed that this multi-tiered planting structure could reduce surface temperature by up to 6 degree Celsius along our roads and state lands compared to planting trees in rows. This is especially useful in industrial areas as they are amongst the hottest regions in Singapore. It would make industrial areas more attractive and conducive to work in.

34,000 trees will also be planted on Jurong Island by 2022. Since 2019, nearly 13,000 trees have been planted on the island. The goal was to make the island more attractive to work in and reduce the overall temperature.

Other than tree planting, green energy is another part of the plan. Singapore will quadruple solar energy deployment by 2025. To achieve that, there will be multiple approaches which include having rooftops of HDB blocks covered by solar panels, deployment of a large scale floating solar panel systems at Tengeh Reservoir and a sea-based offshore floating solar test-bed north of Woodlands Waterfront Park. Furthermore, the country will attempt to tap on green energy sources from ASEAN region while also increasing the efficiency of each new generation of gas-fired power plants to reduce emissions.

HDB towns will also use 15% less energy through the deployment of smart LED lights. Beyond that, 80% of all buildings in Singapore will also be green over the next ten years.

Ministry of Education will also work to strengthen the curriculum and school programmes on sustainability. In addition, they will work to achieve a two-third reduction in net carbon emissions from MOE schools by 2030 and aim for 20% of schools to be carbon neutral by 2030.

To reduce the country’s reliance on cars to get around, 8 in 10 households will be within a 10-minute walk of a train station by 2030. The rail network will grow from around 230 km to 360 km by early 2030s. However, one does wonder what is the environmental cost of expanding the rail network as trees will be felled and land cleared. Even when the trees are replanted back, they will take a while to mature and sequestrate carbon from the envrionment.

For slightly longer trips but those that do not warrant taking the rail, citizens are encouraged to cycle. To encourage that, the cycling network will also be expanded to 1,320 km by 2030 while roads will be repurpose and implement pedestrianisation where possible.

Furthermore, vehicles that run on internal combustion engine will be phased out by 2040. Cars to be registered from 2030 will have to be cleaner-energy model. To support this shift, EV charging points will be increased to 60,000 by 2030 from the current 28,000. Petrol duty rates are also increased with immediate effect in 2021 as part of the goal to shift the society direction towards car-lite behaviour.

Singapore aims to demonstrate that going green is not at the expense of the economy. A key target from the Singapore Green Plan 2030 is to help enterprises embrace sustainability and develop capabilities in this area.

Another target is to create business and job opportunities in sectors such as green finance, sustainability consultancy, verification, credits trading and risk management. Part of that target include building up the financial sector’s resilience to environmental risks. This will support the country’s third target to be a leading centre for Green Finance in Asia and globally. The last target is to promote homegrown innovation under the Research, Innovation and Enterprise Plan 2025, and attract companies to anchor their sustainability R&D activities in Singapore.

Given all the above, it is my opinion that it is in Singapore’s best interest to achieve all the goals and targets earlier than 2030. The COVID-19 pandemic is the best time for us to pivot ourselves towards new growth areas and reshape ourselves to be the model for others to follow.

Smoking is very bad for health and the environment

Cigarette smoking is the bane of any society, causing 6 million deaths every year worldwide while more than 600,000 of those deaths were among non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke. Even the total number of deaths caused by HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined is lower than the total number of deaths caused by smoking as reported in a infographic titled Stop Smoking: It’s Deadly and Bad for the Economy published by The World Bank.

Furthermore, smoking cost the worldwide economy more than US$ 1.4 trillion every year as a result of productivity loss stemming from missed workdays due to smoking-related illness and smoke breaks.

But that is not the only harm brought on by smoking and the wider tobacco industry.

Six trillion cigarettes are produced in 2014. Their production has a major impact on the environment through climate change, water and land use, and toxicity as shown in a report authored by scientists from Imperial College London, which was launched at a meeting of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on 2 October 2018.

The whole lifecycle of green tobacco cultivation, processing, and manufacturing released approximately 84 million tonnes (Mt) of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2 and methane into the atmosphere. It is just to make six trillion cigarettes. And, that makes the annual carbon footprint of tobacco nearly as high as entire countries such as Peru and Israel. A further breakdown revealed the following:

  • The farming stage of tobacco drives more than 70% of the environmental damage from the use of irrigation and fertilisers while also contributing more than 20 Mt of GHG globally.
  • The curing process (to dry tobacco) releases at least 45 Mt of GHG due to the direct burning of wood and coal.
  • The manufacturing stage releases more than 15 Mt of GHG.

Other than warming up the planet, tobacco production also consumes 22 billion tonnes of water. This amount of water consumed could have been better used for other kind of crops that humans actually need such as potato, wheat or rice. 5.3 million hectares of arable land, which could be better used for growing of food crop, are also used by cigarettes factories and to cultivate green tobacco.

In addition, the supply chain for the 6 trillion cigarettes also output 25 million tonnes of solid waste, which include hazardous waste and post-consumer cigarette butts.

And that is not all the harm caused by tobacco.

The smoking of one million cigarettes (which contains about one tonne of dry tobacco) contribute to the following:

  1. Terrestrial acidification that is equivalent to the release of 76 kg of Sulphur Dioxide.
  2. Eutrophication of freshwater and marine that is equivalent to the release of 2.7 kg of Phosphorus and 3.5 kg of Nitrogen respectively.
  3. Human exposure to toxic chemicals that is equivalent to 3,250 kg of 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DB), and that is excluding direct health effect from first- and second-hand smoke, and occupational exposure.
  4. Terrestrial exposure to toxic chemicals that is equivalent to 6.1 kg of 1,4-DB
  5. Freshwater exposure to toxic chemicals that is equivalent to 82 kg of 1,4-DB
  6. Marine exposure to toxic chemicals that is equivalent to 79 kg of 1,4-DB

The numbers equally do not paint a pretty picture at an individual level. The total environmental footprint of a smoker who smokes a pack of 20 cigarettes a day for 50 years is as follows:

  1. Depletion of 1.4 million litres of water, which is equivalent to 62 years of water supply for any three people’s basic needs.
  2. Carbon footprint of 5.1 tonnes of CO2, which is offset by planting of 132 trees and allow them to grow for ten years.
  3. Depletion of 1.3 tonnes of fossil fuel, which can be used to power an average household in India for 15 years.

Tobacco consumption is basically robbing the future generations of better life because it contributes to climate change and the depletion of natural resources that leads to conflicts. And, the majority of tobacco are cultivated in developing nations. Combine that with tobacco’s naturally low yield, small producers are trapped in a vicious cycle of poverty.

So unless governments around the world jointly take action to drastically reduce tobacco consumption and encourage the shift from tobacco cultivation to food crop cultivation, the environmental crisis will only get worse. More conflicts would also arise due to water scarcity. And more people will end up homeless, with little to no access to food due to climate change causing low crop yield.

Life on Earth is highly vulnerable to environmental and atmospheric changes

A recent study by a team of scientists showed that nearly 100% of life was wiped out on Earth around 2 billion years ago, about 200 million years after the end of the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). This mass extinction event saw more of Earth’s biosphere killed off than the one that killed off the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. 1

The GOE was a time when Earth’s atmosphere and shallow oceans experienced a rise in oxygen. It started around 2.4 billion years ago and lasted until around 2 billion years ago. Micro-organisms developed the ability photosynthesise and started altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere. This increase in oxygen concentration provided a new opportunity for biological diversification and changes in the nature of chemical interactions between the various geological substrates, the air and water.

Ultimately, the abundance of oxygen-producing micro-organisms saw all the nutrients needed to create oxygen used up. These organisms died off from starvation. This led to a drop in oxygen levels which then killed off the other lifeforms that came to rely on oxygen for survival and reproduction.

And that is just the first atmospheric change event that we know of which caused mass extinctions. Subsequent mass extinctions were also widely believed to be caused by environment or climate changes brought on by geological processes or external factors such as impact events.

Right now, Earth is widely described to be undergoing the sixth mass extinction event right now. 2 Human activities are the reason why millions of species, plants and animals included, are facing extinctions.

Large number of tropical forests are cleared to make way for our cities and other economical activities such as agriculture. On average, an estimated 18 million acres of forest are removed each year.3 Deforestations damage, if not destroy, the habitats in which animals live. Without proper shelter and the lack of food cause them to die off. This reduces our planet’s biodiversity.

Furthermore, deforestations reduce our planet’s ability to capture carbon from the atmosphere. When the fallen trees are left to rot or burnt, the stored carbon within are released back into the atmosphere. For example, the Indonesia forest fires of 2019 have released 360 million tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which is more than the carbon dioxide emission by Spain for the whole of 2018. 4

In addition to deforestation, our use of fossil fuels to power our vehicles, machines and electronics also releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases such as sulphur dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. All these compounds trap heat close to the planet surface and cause global temperature to rise, which we come to know as global warming.

Global warming has been shown to be the main cause for the increase in the number of severe and intense weather events. 5 There will also be an increase in number of hurricanes, typhoons, cyclones and tornadoes. Such disasters will cost us in terms of lives and resources such as money. Furthermore, rising sea levels will destroy many coastal regions and the communities that depended on it for survival. We will also get either very dry or very wet seasons across the tropical and equatorial regions. Heatwaves will be a common thing.

Food production will be affected with rising temperature. If there is no rain, we can’t grow rice, wheat or corn. Yields will fall dramatically, causing food shortages and exacerbate the divide between the rich and poor. Lifecycle of insects and pollinators such as bees 6, animals and plants will also be affected. Certain crops such as coffee, oranges and apples cannot grow if the climate is not right or when there are no pollinators around. 7

Furthermore, the oxygen levels in our atmosphere could be affected by this climate change.

As described earlier, oxygen did not play a part in the development of life early in Earth’s history until the evolution of organisms that can use carbon dioxide and solar radiation to produce energy and oxygen which we come to know as photosynthesis. This increase in oxygen ultimately led to diversification of life on Earth.

In modern era, we may think that land plants produced most of Earth’s oxygen but it has always been algae and marine microorganisms called phytoplankton that produced more than half of Earth’s oxygen. It is through their combined efforts that life could diversify and spread.

Since the oceans and seas are also warming together with our climate, it is causing a drop in dissolved oxygen levels. 8 The excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will also be absorbed by the oceans over time that will cause them to be more acidic. All these environment changes will put extreme pressure on these algae and phytoplankton. If they are unable to adapt fast enough, they will die off en-mass. This will trigger a chain of events that ultimately affect our atmospheric composition and in turn, life on Earth as we know it. By then, it will be too late to do anything.

And who knows, one day we might just need to carry an oxygen tank behind our backs everywhere we go.